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The general description of forex bank tom friberg bacteria included in the group is gram-positive, nonsporing, nonrespiring cocci or rods, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates.
The LAB term is intimately associated with bacteria involved in food and feed fermentation, including related bacteria normally associated with the healthy mucosal surfaces of humans and animals.
The boundaries of the group have been subject to some controversy, but historically the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Streptococcus form the core of the group. Taxonomic revisions of these genera and the description of new genera mean that LAB could, in their broad forex bank tom friberg definition, comprise around 20 genera.
However, from a practical, food-technology point of view, the following genera are considered the principal LAB: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Forex bank tom friberg. The genus Bifidobacterium, often considered in the same forex bank tom friberg as the genuine lactic acid bacteria and sharing some of their typical features, is phylogenetically unrelated and has a unique mode of sugar fermentation.
The classification of lactic acid bacteria into different genera is largely based on morphology, mode of glucose fermentation, growth at different temperatures, configuration of the lactic acid produced, ability to grow at high salt concentrations, and acid or alkaline tolerance. Chemotaxonomic markers such as fatty acid composition and constituents of the cell wall are also used in classification.
In addition, the present taxonomy relies partly on true phylogenetic relationships, Copyright © by Marcel Dekker, Inc. Some of the newly described genera are most easily determined with oligonucleotide probes, polymerase chain reaction PCR — based technologies using these sequences, or direct sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.
Most genera in the group form phylogenetically distinct groups, but for some, in particular Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, the phylogenetic clusters do not correlate with the current classification based on phenotypic characters. Two main sugar fermentation pathways can be distinguished among lactic acid bacteria.
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Glycolysis Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway results almost exclusively in lactic acid as the end product under forex bank tom friberg conditions, and the metabolism is referred to as homolactic fermentation.
Various growth conditions may significantly alter the end product formation by some lactic acid bacteria. The proton-motive force drives the uphill transport of metabolites and ions into the cell. End-product efflux and electrogenic transport of certain compounds may contribute to the formation of a proton-motive force, thus sparing ATP.
Sugar transport is mediated mainly by proton-motive force—dependant permease systems or phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase systems. Certain components of the phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system appear to hold key positions in the global regulation of the sugar metabolism in general, beyond any function in sugar transport. Transport of amino acids and other nutrients is generally mediated by proton-motive force— dependent systems, antiport systems, or ATP-driven forex bank tom friberg.
Asking this question of scientists in the field would probably result in a fairly uniform answer. This is more because of a historic tradition, rather than the existance of an unequivocal definition of the term.
The historic tradition goes back to before the turn of the twentieth century. Lister in Important progress in the classification of these bacteria was made when the similarity between milk-souring bacteria and other lactic acid — producing bacteria from other sources was recognized[1,2] However, confusion was still prevalent when the monograph of Orla-Jensen appeared.
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This work had a large impact on the systematics of LAB and, although revised to a considerable extent, the classification basis remains remarkably unchanged. As will be seen later in this chapter, these characteristics Copyright © by Marcel Dekker, Inc. There has always been controversy as to the boundaries of the group,[4,5] but that subject will not be dealt with here.
The classification section of this chapter will concentrate on what historically constituted these four genera.
Since many new genera have been described, most comprising strains previously included in one of the four mentioned above. At that time, only phenotypic characters could be examined and evaluated as phylogenetic markers. Today we have the means to examine, in detail, macromolecules of the cell, believed to be more accurate in defining relationships and phylogenetic positions.
Lactic Acid Bacteria
These are, of course, the nucleic acids. Fortunately, nature has provided us with different kinds of nucleic acids for different types of taxonomic studies. Close relationships at species and subspecies levels can be determined with DNA-DNA homology studies, and this method is still used in defining what constitutes a species in the prokaryotic world.
It is now a relatively easy task to determine the sequence of rRNA from bacteria. Initially this was done with the reverse transcriptase technique, but it is now being done forex bank tom friberg sequencing the corresponding cum să îmbunătățiți performanța în tranzacționare using polymerase chain reaction PCR technology.
In addition, rRNA sequencing is an important aid in the classification of LAB, as exemplified by the descriptions of new genera.
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The physiology of LAB has been of interest ever since it was recognized that these bacteria are involved in the acidification of food and feed products. Increased knowledge of LAB physiology, such as metabolism, nutrient utilization, etc. Today, modern genetic techniques are considered to be promising in this regard. However, efforts in this direction may not be fruitful unless there is a sound understanding of the physiology of these bacteria. The attempts at metabolic engineering of Lactococcus lactis [14 — 17] would not have been possible without understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of forex bank tom friberg organism.
In the era of genomics, where some LAB genomes already have been published[18,19] and many more are underway, we will have access to a wealth forex bank tom friberg genetic data with enormous potential to improve our understanding of these bacteria.
Still, such data are meaningless without their elucidation in a physiological context. The fermentative nature of LAB is also of considerable academic interest, since it makes them excellent model systems for the study of energy transduction, solute transport, and membrane biology.
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This may be the case in the laboratory environment that we often impose on them. However, it is clear that LAB have a very diverse metabolic ability to adapt to a variety of conditions. The physiology section of this chapter will describe the main features of LAB, such as carbohydrate metabolism and bioenergetics. Copyright © by Marcel Dekker, Inc. This reflects the intimate association of the term with food and feed manufacture. Again, this is perhaps more of a historical tradition than a scientifically reached position, since the group includes bacteria that are highly pathogenic and therefore undesirable in food e.
In addition, some lactobacilli and other LAB generally associated with food have been implicated in disease; carnobacteria are normal inhabitants in meat, but are also fish pathogens. The main emphasis in this forex bank tom friberg will be on LAB normally associated with food manufacture and positive health aspects.
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General Description and Included Genera An unequivocal definition of the term lactic acid bacteria is not possible to give. Therefore, it is more appropriate to describe the typical lactic acid bacterium, which is gram-positive, non— spore-forming, catalase-negative, devoid of cytochromes, of nonaerobic habit but aerotolerant, fastidious, acid-tolerant, and strictly fermentative, with lactic acid as the major end product during sugar fermentation.
LAB are generally associated with habitats rich in nutrients, such as various food products milk, meat, beverages, vegetablesbut some are also members of the normal flora of the mouth, intestine, and vagina of mammals.
Variations of this general theme are common.
It is really only the gram-positive characteristic that cannot be challenged. For instance, catalase and cytochromes may be formed by some LAB on certain media see belowsome streptococci e. Furthermore, there are no strong scientific arguments for excluding spore-forming bacteria, which otherwise resemble LAB i. In this chapter I will follow the historical tradition not to include spore-formers in the LAB group.
The above definition, despite its limitations, is useful as a core or center around which the actual descriptions of genera or species are formulated. A key feature of LAB forex bank tom friberg must be emphasized is the inability to synthesize porphyrin groups e.
This is the actual physiological background for some of the characteristics mentioned above. Under these conditions, considered normal in most studies of these bacteria, LAB do not forex bank tom friberg the mechanism of an electron transport chain and rely on fermentation, i.
A true catalase and even cytochromes may be formed, in some cases resulting in respiration with a functional electron transport chain.
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The genus Bifidobacterium is historically also considered to belong to the LAB group. Although Bifidobacterium species do fit the general description above, they are phylogenetically more related to the Actinomycetaceae group of gram-positive bacteria.
In addition, they have a special pathway for sugar fermentation, unique to the genus, which clearly separates them from the LAB group. Bifidobacteria will, therefore, not be considered in this general overview of LAB. However, due to their significance in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans and possible probiotic action, bifidobacteria are described in more detail elsewhere in this book.